Country overview

General Information

Country Name

Conventional long form

Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
Country Name

Conventional short form

Sri Lanka
Former Ceylon
Size
Area 65,610 sq km
Length 445 km
Breadth 225 km
Capital Sri Jayewardenepura
Commercial Capital Colombo
Government Sri Lanka, is a free, independent and sovereign nation with a population of 20.3 million (2011 est). Legislative power is exercised by a Parliament, elected by universal franchise on proportional representation basis. A President, who is also elected by the people, exercises executive power including defense. Sri Lanka enjoys a multi party system, and the people vote to elect a new government every six years.
Population 20.3 million
Population Density 296 people per sq km
Life Expectancy at Birth 76.4 female, 71.7 male (2001 est)
Literacy Rate 92.7%(2003 est)
Languages Sinhala & Tamil is widely spoken throughout Sri Lanka.
Ethnic Mix Sihalese, 74.9%; Tamil, 15.4%; Muslim 9.2%; Burgher (descendants of Dutch and Portuguese colonist) and others 0.5% (2012 est)
Religion Buddhism 70.19%; Hinduism 12.61%; Christianity 7.45%; Islam 9.71%
Climate Low lands – tropical, average 27°C Central Hills – cooler, with temperatures dropping to 14°C. The south-west monsoon brings rain to the western, southern and central regions from May to July., while the north-eastern monsoon occurs in the north and east in December and January. Sri Lanka boasts of a good climate for holiday-makers throughout the year.
Annual per capital GNP US $2580 (2011 est)
Industries Processing of rubber, tea, coconuts, and other agricultural commodities; clothing, cement, petroleum refining, textiles, tobacco.
Agriculture – Products Rice, sugarcane, grains, pulses, oilseed, roots, spices, tea, rubber, coconuts; milk, eggs, hides, meat.
Currency Sri Lanka follows decimal currency systilable in the denominations of Rs. 2,10,20,50,100,200, 500,1000,2000, and 5000 in Rupees (Rs.) and cents (Cts.) with 100 cents equal to a rupee. Currency notes are avaCoins are issued in values of Cts.1,2,5,10, 25 and 50 and Rs.1,2,5 and 10. The intervention currency continuously will be the US Dollar.
Visa Consult your local Sri Lanka embassy, consulate, tourist office or your travel agent.
Working Week Sri Lanka works a five-day week, from Monday to Friday.
Business Hours Government offices 8.35 a.m. – 4.15 p.m,, Monday to Friday
Banks 9.00 a.m. to 1.00 p.m. or 3.00 p.m. Monday to Saturday
Post Office 8.30 a.m.- 5.00 p.m., Monday to Friday 8.30 a.m. – 1.00 p.m. on Saturday. The Central Mail Exchange, at D.R.Wijewardene Mawatha, Colombo 10, (Telephone : 326203) is open 24-hours.
Location An island off the south-eastern cost shores of India, 880 km north of the equator, in the Indian Ocean. It lies between 5° 55′ and 9° 55′ north of the equator and between the eastern longitudes 79° 42′ and 81° 52′.
Feature Encompassed beautiful tropical beaches, verdant vegetation, ancient monuments and a thousand delights to please all tastes. The relief features of the island consist of a mountainous mass somewhat south of the centre, with height exceeding 2,500 metres, surrounded by broad plains. Palm fringed beaches surround the island and the sea temperature rarely falls below 27°C.

History

Recent excavations show that even during the Neolithic Age, there were food gatherers and rice cultivators in Sri Lanka. Very little is known of this period documented history began with the arrival of the Aryans from North India. The Aryans introduced the use of iron and an advanced form of agriculture and irrigation. They also introduced the art of government. Of the Aryan settlements, Anuradhapura grew into a powerful kingdom under the rule of king Pandukabhaya. According to traditional history he is accepted as the founder of Anuradhapura.During the reign of King Devanampiya Tissa, a descendent of Pandukabhaya, Buddhism was introduced in 247 B.C. by Arahat Mahinda, the son of Emperor Asoka of India. This is the most important event in Sri Lankan history as it set the country on the road to cultural greatness. As a new civilization flourished Sri Lanka became rich and prosperous.

In the mid 2nd century B.C. a large part of north Sri Lanka came under the rule of an invader from South India. From the beginning of the Christian era and up to the end of the 4th century A.D. Sri Lanka was governed by an unbroken dynasty called Lambakarna, which paid great attention to the development of irrigation. A great king of this dynasty, Mahasen (3rd century A.D.) started the construction of large `tanks’ or irrigation reservoirs. Another great `tank’ builder was Dhatusena, who was put to death by his son Kasyapa who made Sigiriya a royal city with his fortress capital on the summit of the rock.

As a result of invasions from South India the kingdom of Anuradhapura fell by the end of the 10th century A.D. Vijayabahu 1 repulsed the invaders and established his capital at Polonnaruwa in the 11th century A.D. Other great kings of Polonnaruwa were Parakrama Bahu the Great and Nissanka Malla both of whom adorned the city with numerous buildings of architectural beauty.

Invasion was intermittent and the capital was moved constantly until the Portuguese arrived in 1505, when the chief city was established at Kotte, in the western lowlands. The Portuguese came to trade in spices but stayed to rule until 1656 in the coastal regions, as did the Dutch thereafter. Dutch rule lasted from 1656 to 1796, in which year they were displaced by the British. During this period the highland Kingdom, with its capital in Kandy, retained its independence despite repeated assaults by foreign powers who ruled the rest of the country. In 1815 the kingdom of Kandy was ceded to the British and thus they established their rule over the whole island. Modern communications, western medical services, education in English, as well as the plantation industry (first coffee then tea, rubber and coconut) developed during British rule. By a process of peaceful, constitutional evolution, Sri Lanka won back her independence in 1948 and is now a sovereign republic, with membership in the Commonwealth of Nations and the United Nations Organization.

 

Economy

Sri Lanka is mainly an agricultural country. The chief crop is rice with which the country is almost self sufficient. Tea, rubber and coconut are also important agricultural crops, with tea being a major foreign exchange earner. In addition, other crops of importance are cocoa and spices such as cinnamon, cardamom, nutmeg, pepper and cloves. Fruit and vegetables, native to both tropical and temperate regions, grow well in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka is also a major exporter of precious and semi-precious stones. Within the last few years remittances from Sri Lankans employed abroad have contributed a large share towards foreign exchange. The last three decades have seen tourism emerge as an important industry. There has also been a rapid growth in manufacturing industries which offer a wide range of export goods such as petroleum products, leather goods, ready made garments and electronic equipment.

 

Demography

Sri Lanka has a population of 18.5 million of whom the majority are Sinhalese (74%). Other ethnic groups are made up of Sri Lankan Tamils (12.6%), Indian Tamils (5.5%), Moors, Malays, Burghers (of Portuguese & Dutch descent) and others (7.9%). Although Sri Lanka is a multi-religious country, Buddhists constitute the majority with 69.3%. Other religious groups are Hindus 15.5%, Muslims 7.6% and Christians 7.5%. Sri Lanka’s literacy rate of 88.6% is one of the highest in Asia.

 

Language and Religion

 

Sinhala, Tamil and English are official languages in Sri Lanka. Sinhala, a language of Indo-Aryan origin is the language of the majority. Tamil is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly in North-east Sri Lanka. English is widely spoken and understood. Place names and sign-boards on buses and trains are usually in all three languages. Sri Lanka is a land of religious freedom and tolerance. Wherever you travel you will come across a Buddhist Temple or Dagaba, a Hindu Kovil, a Christian Church or a Mosque, each with its own distinctive architecture. When visiting holy places please conform to the requirements as regards dress in order not to show disrespect. Related sites

 

Climate and Seasons

n the lowlands the climate is typically tropical with an average temperature of 27°C in Colombo. In the higher elevations it can be quite cool with temperatures going down to 16°C at an altitude of nearly 2,000 metres. Bright, sunny warm days are the rule and are common even during the height of the monsoon – climatically Sri Lanka has no off season. The south west monsoon brings rain mainly from May to July to the western, southern and central regions of the island, while the north-east monsoon rains occur in the northern and eastern regions in December and January.

 

National Symbols

 


National Anthem
After independence was granted to Sri Lanka in 1948, the need for a national anthem arose. As a result of a contest, Ananda Samarkone’s contribution, written in Sinhalese, was chosen as the new anthem. The Tamil lyrics have the same meaning as the Sinhalese lyrics. It was first performed on the fourth anniversary of independence in early 1952. Sinhala lyrics Sri Lanka Matha, apa Sri Lanka,
Namo Namo Namo Namo Matha.
Sundara siri barini,
Surändi athi Sobamana Lanka
Dhanya dhanaya neka mal pala thuru piri, jaya bhoomiya ramya.
Apa hata säpa siri setha sadana, jee vanaye Matha!
Piliganu mana apa bhakti pooja,
Namo Namo Matha.
Apa Sri Lanka,
Namo Namo Namo Namo Matha,
apa Sri Lanka, Namo Namo Namo Namo Matha. Obave apa vidya obamaya apa sathya obave apa shakti apa hada thula bhakti oba apa aloke
apage anuprane oba apa jeevana ve
apa muktiya obave
Nava jeevana demine nithina apa
Pubudu karan matha
Gnana veerya vadavamina ragena yanu
mana jaya bhoomi kara
Eka mavekuge daru kala bavina
yamu yamu wee nopama
Prema vadamu sama bheda durara da Namo Namo Matha
Tamil Lyrics

 

National Flag

 

The National Flag of Sri Lanka represents the country and her heritage as rallying device that integrates the minorities with the majority race. Sri Lanka National Flag is an improvisation of the civil standard of the last king of Sri Lanka, Sri Wickrama Rajasingha. The civil standard had a passant royal lion with a sword in it’s right fore paw at the center, and a bo-leaf on each of the four corners on a plain border. When Sri Lanka gained her independence from Great Britain on February 04, 1948, it was the lion flag of the last king of Sri Lanka was hoisted once again. The first Prime Minister of independent Sri Lanka, D.S.Senanayake, appointed a committee to advice the government on the design of a new national flag. The design approved by the committee in February 1950 retained the symbol of the lion with the sword and the bo-leaves from the civil standard of the last king of Sri Lanka, with the inclusion of two vertical stripes green and orange in color. The significance of each symbol of the national flag is as follows:• The lion in the flag represents the Sinhala race. • The sword of the lion represents the sovereignty of the country. • Curly hair on the lion’s head indicates religious observance, wisdom and meditation. • The beard denotes purity of words. • The handle of the sword highlights the elements of water, fire, air and earth. • The nose indicates intelligence. • The two front paws purport to purity in handling wealth. • The vertical stripe of orange represent the minority Tamil race and the green vertical stripe the minority Muslim race. • The four virtues of kindness: KINDNESS, FRIENDLINESS, HAPPINESS, EQUANIMITY are also represented in the flag. • The border round the flag, which is yellow in color, represents other minor races. • The bo-leaves at the four corners of the flag represent Buddhism and it’s influence on the nation. They also stand for the four virtues – Kindness, Friendliness, Happiness and Equanimity. • The maroon colored portion of the flag manifests the other minor religions. • The national flag was hoisted for the first time on March 3, 1950.

 

National Tree

 

The Ironwood (Na Tree), botanically known as ”Mesua Nagassarium” was declared the National Tree on 26th February 1986.

 

 

It was chosen as the National Tree for several reasons. • It is a tree which originated in Sri Lanka • Its utility • Historic and cultural importance • Exterior posture • Wide distribution • Colour and nature • Ability to draw and sketch it easily

This rain forest tree grows to about 30 m high and indigenous to the lower wet Zone of Sri Lanka. Remarkable Features of NA is beautiful bright Red Leaves and finally matured in to a deep green. Timber has a very hardness and durability and used to make bridges in the early times. Now it is not allowed to use for timber due to its religious value. The flower of NA is also used in herbal medicine and preparation of perfumes, cosmetics and soaps. It is believed that the first visit of Buddha was to grove of a NA Tree at Miyanganaya and also the next Buddha (Mithriya) will attain enlightenment under a NA tree.

 

National Flower

 

The “Nil Mahanel” flower, botanically known as “Nympheae Stellata” was declared the National Flower of Sri Lanka on 26th February 1986.

 

National Bird

 

 

 

 

Sri Lanka Jungle Fowl – Very colorful ground bird, endemic to Sri Lanka is the national bird of Sri Lanka. Distributed commonly in Sri Lanka’s jungle and dense scrub through out. Roosts high in trees at nights. Flies up to tree branches when threatened. Nests in hidden, scraped place on the ground or on a pile of vegetation just off the ground. Sinharaja is a very good site to watch Sri Lanka Jungle Fowl.

 

Government

 

The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is a free, independent and sovereign state which is governed by a presidential system introduced under the constitution of 1978. The President is the head of state and the head of government and is elected by the people for a term of six years. The executive power of the state is vested with the President and is assisted by  the Cabinet of Ministers  whom are in charge of different subject matters important to development and the economy of the country.   Legislative power is exercised by the Parliament, which consists of 225 members, is elected by people on a proportional representation basis. The provincial councils which are elected by people are the governing body at provincial level and local authorities are responsible for administrating the urban areas and the “Pradeshiya Sabha” areas. There is well establish judicial system which is independent of the executive and the legislature to solve disputes and make jurisdiction on various legal issues arising day to day life of citizens.

 

Constitution

 

The electronic version of Sri Lanka’s Constitution incorporating all amendments [made up to 20th December 2000] was formulated by the Policy Research & Information Unit of the Presidential Secretariat. It is based on the year 2000 reprint ‘The Constitution of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka’ published by the Parliament of Sri Lanka.A PDF document of the Constitution has been published by the Parliament secretariat (as ammended up to 3rd October 2001).

Visitors can also access to the 1978 Constitution of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka in its original form [PDF Format]. The Source is the Official Legal Information Centre of Sri Lanka (www.lawnet.lk) .

 

 

Country overview

 

General Information

LOCATION Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iraq and Saudi Arabia
CLIMATE Dry desert; intensely hot summers; short, cool winters
TERRAIN Flat to slightly undulating desert plain
NATURAL RESOURCES Petroleum, fish, shrimp, natural gas
NATURAL HAZARDS Sudden cloudbursts are common from October to April and bring heavy rain, which can damage roads and houses; sandstorms and dust storms occur throughout the year, but are most common between March and August
CAPITAL Kuwait City
AREA 17,820 sq km
POPULATION 2,788,534 (July 2015 est.) Kuwait’s Public Authority for Civil Information estimates the country’s total population to be 4,183,658 for 2015, with immigrants accounting more than 69%
ETHNIC GROUPS Kuwaiti 45%, other Arab 35%, South Asian 9%, Iranian 4%, other 7%
NATIONALITY Kuwaiti
GOVERNMENT Nominal constitutional monarchy
CABINET Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister and approved by the monarch
CHIEF OF STATE H.H. Amir Sheikh Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jabir Al Sabah (since 29th January 2006)
CROWN PRINCE H.H. Sheikh Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-  Sabah
PRIME MINISTER H.H. Sheikh Jaber Mubarak Al- Hamad Al-Sabah
DEP. PRIME MINISTER & MINISTER OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS H.E. Sheikh Sabah Al Khalid Al-Sabah
NATIONAL DAY 25th February
LANGUAGES Arabic (official), English widely spoken
RELIGIONS Muslim 85% (Sunni 70%, Shi’a 30%), Christian, Hindu, Parsi, and other 15%
CURRENCY Kuwaiti Dinar (KD)
GDP EXCHANGE RATE $123.2 billion (2015 est.)

 

The State of Kuwait is found on the north eastern shore of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by the Persian Gulf from the east, Iraq from the north and west and the KSA from the south.

The area of the State of Kuwait is of 17.818 thousand square kilometers. The length of the coastal line along with the islands, reaches approximately 500 kilometers. The Gulf of Kuwait is considered one of the main coastal attractions.

The State of Kuwait includes nine islands, which are: Bubyan, Failaka, Miskan, Kubbar, Qaruh, Um Al Maradim, Um Al Naml, and Auhah Island.

The State of Kuwait is distributed into six governorates, which are the Capital, Hawalli, Al Farwaniya, Al Ahmedi, Mubarak Al Kabir and Al Jahra.

Since Kuwait is located in a desert region, the climate is continental distinguished by long hot dry summers and warm short winters with occasional rainfall. Sandstorms often occur during the summer months.

The population up until 30/June/2007 reached approximately 3,328,136. 1,038,598 of which are Kuwaiti nationals the rest are expatriates and foreigners.

The official religion of the State is Islam, with believers of other religions having their full rights to practice their religion, provided that they do not disrespect or harm Islam; the official language is the Arabic.

The Kuwaiti Flag was raised for the first time following the independence of Kuwait on 24 November 1961. It includes a rectangle which is divided into three equal and horizontal sections, the first of which being green, followed by the white and then red colors. The flag holds a trapezium of black color. The colors were inspired from the following verse of Arabic poetry:

The Coat of Arms consists of the shield of the flag design in color superimposed on a falcon with wings displayed. The falcon supports a disk containing a sailing ship (dhow) with the full name of the State written (in Arabic) at the top of the disk.

The National Anthem was first recited on 25 February 1978 and it is still recited today. The idea of having a national anthem was that of the ministerial cabinet, that was headed by the late Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmed Al Sabah, when he was a crown prince and prime minister during the reign of the late Sheikh Sabah Al Salem Al Sabah, the ruler of Kuwait at the time.

Government

 

Kuwait is an independent country with a constitution. It has a democratic amiri regime. His Highness the Amir of the State is the ruler of the country. Kuwait National Assembly must enact country laws. The number of the assembly members is 50, chosen by people every 4 years through free and fair elections. Authorities in Kuwait are divided into legislative, executive and judiciary and the Amir is the head of the authorities. Pursuant to Kuwait Constitution, no parties might be formed despite the existence of parliamentary blocs. Kuwait’s system of government is monarchical and constitutional. It derives its legitimacy from Kuwait Constitution. Hence, the authority is transferred between the members of the ruling family; the family of Mubarak Al-Sabah. The title of Kuwait ruler is Amir and he rules through the cabinet. Decrees are not executed unless approved by the Amir. Only the Amir can issue pardons. Kuwait government system is both parliamentary and presidential; as all laws enacted by Kuwait National Assembly are not valid until signed by the Amir within one month. After the month, if they are not signed, they are in force same as being signed. If laws and legislations are returned to the Assembly; then approved, they become in force without Amir signature.

Economy

 

 

Kuwait has a geographically small, but wealthy, relatively open economy with crude oil reserves of about 102 billion barrels – more than 6% of world reserves. Kuwaiti officials plan to increase oil production to 4 million barrels per day by 2020. Petroleum accounts for over half of GDP, 94% of export revenues, and 90% of government income.

In 2015, Kuwait, for the first time in fifteen years, realized a budget deficit after decades of high oil prices. Kuwaiti authorities have tried to reduce the deficit by decreasing spending on subsidies for the local population, but with limited success. Despite Kuwait’s dependence on oil, the government has cushioned itself against the impact of lower oil prices, by saving annually at least 10% of government revenue in the Fund for Future Generations.

Kuwait has failed to diversify its economy or bolster the private sector, because of a poor business climate, a large public sector that crowds out private employment of Kuwaiti nationals, and an acrimonious relationship between the National Assembly and the executive branch that has stymied most economic reforms. The Kuwaiti government has made little progress on its long-term economic development plan first passed in 2010. While the government planned to spend up $104 billion over four years to diversify the economy, attract more investment, and boost private sector participation in the economy, many of the projects did not materialize because of an uncertain political situation.

History of Kuwait

 

 

The civilized presence of Kuwait dates to more than 4000 years according to the archeological discoveries available in the area. At the middle of 18th century Kuwait established close relations with Britain with the intention of moving away from Ottoman rule, and in 1899 Kuwait became a British colony. Kuwait was more efficient in pearl trading until the introduction of artificial cultivation of pearls in 1920’s. It completely damaged Kuwait pearl industry and ended up being one of the poorest and weakest countries in that region. Its’ weakness and small size stirred neighboring countries Iraq and Saudi Arabia to claim parts of the borders and the British imposed the Uqair Protocol of 1922, which clearly defined borders between the three countries. In the late1930’s oil was discovered in Kuwait, and Kuwait saw a new beginning. In 1953 the country’s economy prospered as it became the largest oil exporter in the Middle East.

Britain oversaw foreign relations and defense for the ruling Kuwaiti AL-SABAH dynasty from 1899 until independence in 1961, as the first of the Persian Gulf Arab countries to gain its independence. From there on, things have changed dramatically: changes in the political system and changes after the war. Kuwait was attacked and overrun by Iraq on 2 August 1990. Following several weeks of aerial bombardment, a US-led, UN coalition began a ground assault on 23 February 1991 that liberated Kuwait in four days. Kuwait spent more than $5 billion to repair oil infrastructure damaged during 1990-91. The AL-SABAH family has ruled since returning to power in 1991 and reestablished an elected legislature that in recent years has become increasingly assertive. The country witnessed the historic election in May 2009 of four women to its National Assembly. Amid the 2010-11 uprisings and protests across the Arab world, stateless Arabs, known as bidoon, staged small protests in February and March 2011 demanding citizenship, jobs, and other benefits available to Kuwaiti nationals. Youth activist groups – supported by opposition legislators and the prime minister’s rivals within the ruling family – rallied in March 2011 for an end to corruption and the ouster of the prime minister and his cabinet. Similar protests continued sporadically throughout April and May. In late September 2011 government inquiries of widespread corruption drew more public anger and renewed calls for the prime minister’s removal.

The ruling family (Al Sabah) and Kuwait

 

 

The civilized presence of Kuwait dates to more than 4000 years according to the archeological discoveries available in the area. This is due to the unique geographical location of Kuwait, which enabled it to become a land and sea connecting link among the old parts of the world. Its strategic location controls the connecting passages between the different civilizations and markets in the world, making Kuwait the meeting center of these civilizations and developments.

Failka Island with all its wells and fresh water constituted an anchorage area for trade ships connecting the ports located at the gulf cape and the remaining southern parts, in their way towards Oman, India and Northern Africa.

Over the centuries, this area was known as (Kadhima). Its port which carried the same name was located at the western south part of Jon Kuwait. Kadhima was a station for caravans coming from Persia and the land of two rivers, in their ways to the east and middle of the Arab Island. For a long period, it remained the trade link among the Pacific Ocean, Sham countries and Europe; thus, it was a trade center and one of the longest and most important trade roads in the old world.

At the beginning of the 17th century, a group of families and tribes came to this area from Najd. Thanks to their sharp insight, they realized the importance and spatial privileges of this location. They started to renovate Kadhima whose position was badly affected. The civilized center was located at the southern coast of Jon where they established the State of Kuwait in 1613.

Utob consisted not only from one tribe; yet, it is originally a group of families cooperated together. Sabah, Khalifa and Jalahma families were the most significant among others. They were called “Utob” due to their frequent traveling. “Lesan Al-Arab” dictionary mentioned the term “Atab as moving from an area to another, i.e. passing a site to another.” They moved from their origin country in Hadar, Aflaj province, at the southern of Najd, to Ehsaa, Qatar, then to Kuwait.

The historical documents and evidence indicate that the first movement of Utob to Kuwait was at the beginning of the second decade of the 17th century. That is supported by the statement of Sheikh Mubarak Al-Sabah, the ruler of Kuwait, in his letter dated March 11, 1913 to the British commissioner at Abu Shaher, stating that: “Kuwait was a deserted land, inhabited by our grandfather; Sabah, in 1022 AH, i.e. 1612 AD”

The tribes inhabiting Kuwait transformed to a civilized society, with a clear political entity, distinguished for its stability and prosperity, as confirmed by the travelers who visited the area, including Murtada bin Olwan in 1907. The British Archive documents indicate that Sabah family was ruling the area in 1716 AD, which means that the stability of this society goes back to an earlier period.

With the continuous stability of Kuwaiti society and after launching its activities in sea and land, there appeared an urgent need for a leadership, to which people could refer. Such leadership should have the legitimacy and ability to protect its society and interests and to represent them at other surrounding societies. They invested the presidency to a man from Sabah family, which they considered distinguished with his welfare and rightness. Hence, the ruling was undertaken by this family, inherited from the oldest and most intelligent to his successor until the present day.

Unfortunately, the historical resources which mentioned that Kuwait was established in 1613 AD have failed to state anything about its rulers before 1718 AD. This is the date in which the names of the Kuwaiti rulers and achievements were authenticated, starting from Sheikh Sabah bin Jaber, nominated as “Sabah Al-Awwal” in the modern resources. One day, maybe we may discover new documents identifying an aspect of such historical stage. Now, we are going to speak about the rulers of Kuwait from Sabah bin Jaber.

Invasion and liberation

 

 

The adversity of the 2 August 1990 began when huge armed units of the former Iraqi regime crossed the Kuwaiti borders. Scattered battles took place between the Iraqi forces and the Kuwaiti army, ending in the occupation of the State of Kuwait for seven months, in an unprecedented incident along the current century.

Since the first moments of the invasion, the international community, represented in the International Security Council, solidly condemned the Iraqi invasion of the State of Kuwait in an emergency meeting convened based on the request of both the State of Kuwait and the United States of America. In the presence of its Secretary General Mr. Javier Solana- issued its resolution No. 660 requesting Iraq to withdraw all its forces immediately and unconditionally to its locations before the second of August, and the commencement of negotiations between the two countries for settling their differences. However, the Iraqi regime refused to bow to the will of the international community, insisting on its stance and pretending that this military action is an internal Iraqi affair.

The adversity of the Iraqi invasion highlighted how far the Kuwaiti people were united, solid, and resistant to the occupation, in addition to their support to their legal government and leadership. Kuwait sovereignty, independence and the safety of its land were never compromised. Such solidarity was admired by the whole world.

Kuwaitis proudly remember the great role played by their late Amir Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmed Al Jaber Al Sabah to restore Kuwait’s sovereignty, and free it from the tyrant invasion. During the first weeks of the invasion, H.H. the late Amir issued a number of Amiri orders and decrees for managing the internal affairs of the country. The most important ones were the temporary meeting of the government in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, ministers’ continuity to perform their duties, and arranging the financial and living of Kuwaiti families abroad. In October 1990, His Highness issued a decree of non-abidance with the value of banknotes stolen from the Central Bank of Kuwait, and another decree of subjecting monies of the Kuwaitis and resident expatriates to protection.

On the international level, H.H. exerted several efforts including mobilization of international support, attending conferences and participating in international activities in one hand, and sending Kuwaiti delegations to different countries to explain the situation and obtain support for the just case of Kuwait on the other. The efforts of H.H. the late Amir commenced with participation in the Emergency Arab Summit Conference, which was held in Cairo – Arab Republic of Egypt – on the 10th of August 1990, where the Arab leaders shouldered their historical responsibility toward Kuwait for ending the occupation and restoring legitimacy. H.H. also directed a message to the International Islamic Conference, which was held on the tenth of September 1990 in the Holy Mecca, where he stressed the principles of Islam, and pillars of faith, most important of which is supporting the right, lifting injustice and deterring the oppressive group.

On the 27th of September 1990 , H.H. the late Amir delivered a historical speech before over sixty state presidents, ninety government leaders, ministers, and ambassador during the forty fifth session of the U N General Assembly. All attendees stood up, and applauded in tribute, respect and support of His Highness and the just case of Kuwait.

On the 22nd of December of the same year, His Highness also participated in the eleventh summit of the GCC countries, which was held in Doha under the slogan of “Liberation and Change”. The summit confirmed GCC countries’ support of Kuwait, their abidance with the execution of all the resolutions of Security Council concerning the Iraqi invasion of the State of Kuwait, and announcing that the relations of GCC countries with different counties worldwide shall be affected – adversely and positively – pursuant to the stance of such countries regarding the execution of Security Council resolutions.

His Highness the late Amir also performed a number of official visits as part of his wide tours that covered some of the Security Council’s permanent members like the United States, France, Britain, and China, to mobilize support of Kuwait’s just case.

On the 17th of January 1991, the United States of America and its allies executed their obligations pursuant to the Security Council Resolution No. 678, by forcing the Iraqi regime to withdraw from the Kuwaiti lands. The Desert Strom war – as it was called by the international allied forces – resulted in achieving its goal of liberating the State of Kuwait on the 26th of February 1991, and the return of the legitimate government.

After the liberation of the State of Kuwait, H.H. the late Amir delivered a speech on the occasion of the last ten days of the Holy month of Ramadan 1411 A.H. in which he said “Praise be to Allah who gathered us again on our land, reunified us, and granted us victory over the oppressors. May Allah grant mercy to our martyrs, freedom to our prisoners of war, and health and wellbeing to our injured ones”. In that speech, H.H. the late Amir assured that the adversity of Kuwait revealed the nobility of all the leaders and peoples of the GCC countries, who proved that brotherhood is not just mere words, but a profound belief that is materialized in hard times.

H.H. also commended the great role played by the Arab and Islamic countries in the liberation of the State of Kuwait, as well as the loyal friends in the allied forces, who mobilized all their powers and capabilities for defending right, law, and lofty ideals.

Kuwaitis played a considerable role in resistance and liberation. The Kuwaiti people confrontation of the enemy formed a unique phase in the history of this country and their struggle in defending their homeland, during which several males and females paid their lives for their country. The twenty six of February 1991 was indeed a unique day; it materialized the story of a people whose land was occupied, but it resisted, won and liberated. On the same day, Kuwaitis annually renew their gratitude to all those who supported the Kuwaiti case.

After liberation, the Iraqi regime agreed to the resolutions of the Security council related to the Invasion of Kuwait, and the obligations resulting thereof. These resolutions permanently settled all the issues related to the invasion and its reasons.

After the return of the late Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmed Al-Jaber Al-Sabah to Kuwait on 14 march 1991, he performed a lot of official and friendly visits, during which he participated in a lot of regional and international conferences. The objective of these visits was to thank the United Nations and its member states, in addition to the countries that shared with military forces in the process of liberating the State of Kuwait as part of the international alliance, for their honorable stand toward the just case of Kuwait.

After the leadership of Kuwait returned to its homeland after liberation, it set and executed an integrated plan for reconstruction of the State of Kuwait, which was mostly destroyed, with almost all basic organizations out of function, and infrastructure almost parallelized. The reconstruction plan was successfully executed with a total cost of about US$ 70 billion, and its completion was celebrated, along with putting out the last oil well set to fire by the Iraqis before they were defeated, on the 6th of November 1991. As part of expressing its proud of the achievement celebrated in this date, the State of Kuwait submitted a proposal to the United Nation General Assembly for declaring the sixth of November as an international day for preventing the usage of environment in military conflicts. The proposal, which was approved in 2001, assures that the environmental damage incurred at the time of armed disputes leads to a long term destruction of the ecosystems and natural resources after the dispute is over, and usually exceeds the limit of national borders, and current generation. The proposal further requires maintaining the environment for future generations. The fourth paragraph of the proposal states “All member states shall refrain, in their international relations, from threatening to use, or using force against the integrity and safety of any other country”.

Independence and building the modern state

 

 

1899 treaty

The late Sheikh Mubarak Al Sabah, the 7th Ruler of the State of Kuwait and known as “Great Mubarak” asked for British protection in September 1897 due to a dispute with the Ottoman State. His demand was rejected by the British Government on the pretext of that it is unnecessary to intervene in the region. However, it changed its position and agreed on signing an agreement in January 23, 1899. One of the most prominent features of the agreement is that Sheikh Mubarak should not accept any agent or representatives of any foreign country without the British Government’s consent.

Sheikh Mubarak agreed that Britain assigns a commissioner in Kuwait and he was captain Nox who arrived to Kuwait in August 1904. He continued to occupy this position until April 28, 1906. Later, political commissioners were assigned till the declaration of Kuwait’s independence in 1961.

Kuwait took advantage of this treaty to build and strengthen the bases of modern state. This treaty has provided foreign political stability and protection from external threats and greed, which made this foreign stability an internal constructive factor. Rulers of Kuwait were able to take care and build the emirate after they got rid of the concern of external greed. Therefore, schools were built Like Mubarakeyah and Ahmadeyah, Shura Council was established in 1921, 1st election of municipality was held in 1932 and Legislative Council in 1938, Health and Education Councils were established in 1936, Public Security Department in 1938 and Orphanage Department in 1939. Also, HH Sheikh Ahmad Al Jaber signed an agreement with American and British companies to explore oil in 1934 and other issues and things practiced by Kuwaitis that determine their destiny.

The Era of the Late HH Sheikh Abdallah Al Salem was the real set off on the path of independence. HH has taken vigorous steps towards establishing independent constitutional state since he took office in 1950. HH worked on issuing laws and legislations that supports the establishment of an independent state like nationality and judiciary organization laws in 1959, monetary law in 1960, Fatwa and Legislation Department was established in the same year, government departments were organized and other laws and regulations which are considered pillars of the state.

Due to the abundance of many factors that contributed directly and indirectly in Kuwait independence either internally or externally, internal voices were raised calling for independence, which made Sheikh Abdallah Al Salem play an effective role in investing these information to declare Kuwait independence. Therefore, he expressed to the British Kuwait desire to end the British Protection Treating and replace it with other agreements suitable for the political development in the country and the Arab and international realm. He also reiterated the importance of respecting Kuwaiti desire to have full independence.

The actual independence of Kuwait was on 19 June 1961 when HH the late Amir Sheikh Abdallah Al Salem Al Sabah exchanged 2 important memorandums with the British political residency in the Arabian Gulf Sir William Los. The memorandums contained “the cancellations of 1988 Treaty as it is incompatible with the sovereignty and independence of Kuwait” and that “relations between Britain and Kuwait shall continue on the basis of strong friendship”.

Independence means freedom of the state and its independent entity and that it performs its external mission without other tutelage. This was achieved through the independent agreement signed by the father of the constitution by then HH Sheikh Abdallah Al Salem.

The new era of independence has imposed taking many new legal, constitutional and diplomatic procedures, the most prominent of which was the issuance of an Amiri decree that calls for general elections for a constituent assembly that was authorized to draft the state constitution. During the 9 months of the assembly’s date, the draft constitution of Kuwait was accomplished consisting of 183 articles and presented to HH Sheikh Abdallah Al Salem who ratified it and issued it on 11 November 1962.

Moreover, the old flag of Kuwait which was in red color and the word “Kuwait” was in the middle was replaced with the new flag. As an implementation of the constitution provisions, the 1st parliamentary election was held in the modern history of Kuwait to choose 50 members representing 10 constituencies on 23 January 1962.

On 29 January 1963, HH Sheikh Abdallah Al Salem inaugurated the 1st National Assembly in the history of Kuwait.

Kuwait independence was a new phase that made it enter the international community according to a special Kuwaiti policy based on pursuing peace and achieving cooperation with different world states within the framework of brotherhood and friendship among nations. The first step on the diplomatic and political arena was establishing the ministry of foreign affairs to pursue its duty. Therefore, an Amiri decree was issued in 19 August 1961 to establish a foreign department that shall carry out foreign affairs of the state and integrate Kuwait government secretariat in the foreign department which turned with the 1st ministerial formation into the ministry of foreign affairs.

Following independence, Kuwait asked for the Arab League membership where the council of the latter met in 16 July 1961 and issued a resolution accepting Kuwait as a member.

In 30 November 1961, the Security Council started to take into consideration Kuwait demand to join the United Nation’s. In 14 May 1963 Kuwait got the approval and became the 111 member. HH the Amir Sheikh Sabah al Ahmed Al Jaber Al Sabah, Minister of Foreign Affairs by then, delivered Kuwait’s speech at the UN in a historic moment of Kuwait’s march.

Kuwait, thereafter, has participated in UN international organizations like, WHO, FAO, UNESCO, WB, ILO and worked hard through its international activity to advocate Arab issues amongst which is the Palestinian issue.

As an appreciation of the great role played by the late Amir Sheikh Abdallah Al Salem in Kuwait independence and laying down the foundation of modern state, a decree was issued in 1963 to integrate the National Day with Accession the Throne Day corresponding to February 25th which is the date when HH ascent the throne in Kuwait in 1950.

Kuwait Today

 

 

Efforts exerted for building the State since independence reflect the wisdom of the political leadership, and stand as indicators of a better and wider horizon future toward further human achievements on the Kuwaiti arena. Therefore, it is worth mention some of these remarkable achievements in brief, without loss of content or downgrading the role of achievers, whose fingerprints are still remarkable on their works, of which current generation is proud, and which will be a source of pride for future generations as well.

Cooperative societies are considered among the most important economic landmarks in Kuwait. They encompass 70% of the retail trade in the country. At the same time, they play important social and political role everybody touches. Cooperative societies in Kuwait look very much like modern commercial complexes.

The first attempts of consumer cooperation in the State of Kuwait started at Mubarakiya School in 1941 by establishing the school cooperative society. Some other cooperative societies followed in some governmental entities in 1955 like the cooperative society of social affairs department, and the education department. Those cooperatives were subject to the law of social organizations and clubs due to the non-existence of a law for cooperatives at that time.

Duly organized consumer cooperatives started only with the issuance of the law No. 20 of 1962, which handled their establishment, membership, management, control, dissolving and liquidation.

With the beginning of the eighties, the cooperative movement became open to Arab and international cooperative movements, and the Kuwaiti Union for Cooperative Societies sought membership in the International Cooperative Alliance as of March 1981.

It is worth mentioning that cooperative societies spend 25% of their annual profits on social services in their area, including organizing pilgrimage and Omra visits, providing schools and hospitals with some of their basic needs, and organizing social, educational and recreational programs for the residents of the area.

Among the leading projects performed by the cooperative societies is the establishment of a modern specialized hospital for cardiac diseases and diagnostic X-ray, with the cost of about K.D. 15 million (approximately US$ 53 million).

Kuwait realized the dimensions of social security as a social and humanitarian case. This urged it to early establish social systems through which it can guarantee a good source of income for those unable to work. The law of public aid and then the law of social security were issued to organize social security.

The first step in this humanitarian direction took place in 1995, where all aids were assigned to the Department of Social Affairs, which in turn set basic rules for the same, depending on social research of every case of the beneficiaries including cases of total disability to work due to injury, aging, death of family breadwinner, or the occurrence of disasters and calamities as a result of fire, floods or rain. The number of cases receiving such aids at that time reached 613 families with the total amount of about four thousand Kuwaiti Dinars.

After the independence of the State of Kuwait and the issuance of its constitution on 1962, it was necessary to issue a law that organizes such aids. This took place in 1968, and the issued law then covered the following cases: widows, divorced women, orphans, sick people, disabled people, families of imprisoned persons, families of those laid off from work, financially disabled, and those reaching old age, in addition to families who have students, non-working women, and unmarried women.

Kuwait considers social security as a basic right for all its citizens, and an important element of social and economic stability. The social security system considers the individuals nationality as a Kuwaiti citizen, regardless of his group, or the source of income he depends on for covering his life requirements. The umbrella of social security extends to all citizens via insuring the breadwinner.

The law of social security No. (61) of 1976 (composed of 132 articles) was issued based on the text of the seventh article of the Kuwaiti constitution: “..cooperation and compassion form a strong bond among citizens”, and the text of the eleventh article thereof “.. the government ensures to provide assistance to citizens in case of aging, sickness or disability to work and provides them with social security services, social aid and healthcare.

In October 1977 the broad conception of social insurance began to be applied on civil citizens working for an employer (government – oil sector – private). Few years later, the coverage expanded to include citizens in different work activities. Currently the insurance coverage of citizens reached its highest level of 100%.

The social security system in the State of Kuwait is distinguished with its quality, and the highest level privileges provided by the government to its citizens. This is basically due to the support and care of the government to this system, in addition to the unique style of providing insurance service via the Public Authority for Social Security.

The Public Authority for Minors Affairs (PAMA) was established in 1938, during the reign of the late Sheikh Ahmed Al Jaber Al Sabah, Amir of the State of Kuwait at that time, with the humanitarian and noble objective of being the guardian of minors who have no guardian, the attached, the incapacitated, and the lost, for protecting their monies and maintaining their properties.

PAMA is supervised by the Minister of Justice in his capacity, and has all the capacities granted to the guardian and all their duties pursuant to the provisions of the law no. 67 of 1983, and the civil law, as long as they do not contradict with the provisions of the Islamic Sharia. If such laws do not contain a text applicable for the concerned case, the provisions of the Sharia shall apply.

This unique project in the Arab world was established pursuant to the initiation of the late Amir Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmed Al Jaber Al-Sabah when he was yet the Crown Prince, with the support and participation of the Chamber of Commerce.

KFAS (a private foundation of public interest) was established pursuant to the Amiri decree issued on 21 Dhul Hejja 1396, corresponding to the 12 December 1976.

KFAS is managed by a board of directors chaired by His Highness the Amir of Kuwait and includes six members elected by Kuwait joint stock companies for the term of three years. The general objective of KFAS is to provide support for scientific and cultural advancemen.

In its meeting held on 9 February 2009, under the chairmanship of H.H. the Amir Sheikh Sabah Al-Ahmed Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, KFAS Board of Directors approved the initiation of His Highness for establishing Sabah Al-Ahmed Center for Talented and Creative. The centre includes a number of creative activities, innovations and inventions, in addition to developing technical skills, activities of young scientists, and providing care to the distinguished, talented and creative people in all fields.

On 28 November 1976 an Amiri decree was issued concerning the reserve for future generations by opening a special account for reserve of the oil fortune composed of 50% of the general reserve of the country in the first year, and to be annually funded by deducting 10% of the general revenues of the country as of the fiscal year 1976-1977. Such monies are to be re-invested in the same account. The Public Investment Authority shall be responsible for reinvestment of the account monies on behalf of the government, in different internal and external projects.

The future generations’ reserve is the source upon which the government count in covering any economic crises the State may encounter, till the correction of the economic structure of the State.

Kuwait’s conscience was always alert to the suffering and agony of developing countries. Decades ago, and even before the discovery of oil, Kuwait always understood the feeling of countries in need, and worked hard on solving development issues. Despite the State of Kuwait considers itself one of the developing countries, it never hesitated to deduct a considerable part of its national income to help other countries. Bases on this principle, it established the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development to be the first official Kuwaiti channel for providing help and support for developing countries, and assisting them in performing their development programs.

The foundation of the fund was announced in December 1961 to be the first development organization in the Middle East founded by the State of Kuwait directly after its independence for providing development assistance for Arab developing countries. The idea of establishing the fund was proposed by the H.H. the late Amir Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmed Al-Jaber Al-Sabah when he was still the Minister of Finance at that time. The establishment of KFAED at that early time was a manifestation of understanding the reality of the development crisis confronted by the third world, and that the State of Kuwait, despite its small size, is concerned with putting part of its income in service of development and assisting developing countries to develop their economies, particularly via providing them with loans and necessary technical aid for financing the execution of development programs therein based on sound technical and economic basis to guarantee the subject of financed projects, and grant the benefiting countries the highest possible economic and social benefits.

In July 1974, the activities of the fund were decided to be expanded to cover all developing countries, and therefore its capital was increased from K.D. 200 million to K.D. 1000 million. In March of 1981, the capital was doubled to reach K.D. 2000 million.

There is no doubt that KFAED succeeded in materializing its objectives, and actively participated in building the internationally good reputation of the State of Kuwait in the field of economic development and humanitarian aid. This positively reflected on fostering the ties between the State of Kuwait and the countries receiving such aids, and duly on the stance of such countries toward Kuwait in international forums.

SRI LANKA – KUWAIT RELATIONS

Bilateral Agreements/ MoUs
High-level visits between two countries
Sri Lanka to Kuwait
Kuwait to Sri Lanka
Development Assistance
Cultural Cooperation
Sri Lankan Community

 

Sri Lanka and Kuwait enjoy close and friendly relations for many decades. As early as 1963, Sri Lanka extended its support for the entry of Kuwait to the United Nations after it became a fully independent state in June 1961.

On 19th February 1971, Sri Lanka and Kuwait established formal diplomatic relations. Sri Lanka appointed its first resident Ambassador to Kuwait in 1982. Kuwait opened its resident Mission in Colombo in October 1995.

Sri Lanka supported all UN resolutions and supported Kuwait against aggression. Sri Lanka was one of the first countries to re-open its Embassy in Kuwait after the Gulf War.

 

Bilateral Agreements/ MoUs

 

• Agreement on Trade Cooperation-1994
• Agreement for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with Respect to taxes on income and Capital. – 2004
• Agreement Concerning Transfer of Sentenced Persons. – 2007
• MoU on Cultural, Media, Educational, Scientific and Technological Cooperation between Sri Lanka and the State of Kuwait – 2007
• Agreement o Promotion and Reciprocal Protection of Investment-2009
• MOU on Field of Labour, Recruitment and Development of Manpower -2012

 

High-level visits between two countries

 

Sri Lanka to Kuwait

 

• Official visit of the then Prime Minister Hon. D.B. Wijetunga -1992
• Visit of H.E. Mahinda Rajapaksa , when he was Minister of Labour – 1996.
• Visit of the former President H.E Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga on the invitation of the Amir of the State of Kuwait H.H. Sheikh Jabir Al Ahmed Al Jabir Al Sabah – 26th to 28th May 1997. The President was accompanied by the former late Hon. Minister of Foreign Affairs, Lakshman Kadirgamar and other senior officials.
• Visit of Members of the Parliamentary Consultative Committee of the Ministry of Employment and Labour – December 2002.
• Visit of Hon. M.H. Mohamed, Minister of Western Regional Development – 09th to 12th January 2003.
• Visit of Hon. Lal Dharmapriya Gamage, Minister Assisting Foreign Affairs – 11-17 January 2003. During his visit the Minister met with the Minister of Interior and Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of Kuwait.
• Visit of Hon. Mahinda Samarasinghe, former Minister of Employment and Labour – 26.09.2003. Sri Lankan expatriates and Kuwaiti well-wishers donated a sum of Rs. 1.5 million to the Minister for the Flood Relief Fund.
• State visit of H.E. Mahinda Rajapaksa, President – 21-22 May 2007. The president was accompanied by a high level delegation consisting of Ministers Rohitha Bogollagama, Keheliya Rambukwella, A.H.M. Fowzie and President’s Secretary Lalith Weeratunga.
• H.E. Mahinda Rajapaksa, President attended the First Asia Coorperation Dialogue Summit (ACD) in Kuwait – 15th – 17th October, 2012.
• Visit of Hon. Prof. G.L.Peiris, Minister of External Affairs to attend the 10th Asia Cooperation Dialogue (ACD) Ministerial Meeting from 10th – 11th October 2011 and met Kuwait Minister of Foreign Affairs
• Visit of Hon. Thalatha Athukorala, Minister of Foreign Employment – 17th to 18th September 2015. The Minister had fruitful discussions with the labour Minister of Kuwait Her Excellency Hind Subaih Barrak Al Subaih towards exploring more employment opportunities for Sri Lankans under skilled and professional categories.

*Professor G.L. Peiris, Minister of External Affairs, had a bilateral meeting on the sidelines of the 9th Asia Co-operation Dialogue in November 2010 in Tehran, with H.E. Dr. Mohammad Sabah Al Salem Al Sabah, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Kuwait.

 

Kuwait to Sri Lanka

 

• Visit of a six member parliamentary delegation from the National Assembly of Kuwait – October 2002.

• Senior level visits, including the visit of Minister of Higher Education from Kuwait to Sri Lanka were undertaken with a view to strengthening bilateral relations between the two countries.

• The Fifth Committee of Parliamentary Friendship Association in Kuwait visited the Parliament of Sri Lanka from 15 –17 June 2005. The delegation met with the Deputy Speaker of Parliament Mr. Gitanjana Gunawardena.

• Visit of H.E Eng. Falah Fahad Al Hajri, Minister of Commerce and Industry January 2007. The Minister accompanied by a delegation consisting 24 members and the Minister paid a call on H.E. Mahinda Rajapakse.

• Visit of a delegation consisting five members including Abdulla Abul Hassan, Adviser of the Diwan Al Amiri of the State of Kuwait – 18th of February, 2013 .

• Visit of 5th Parliamentary Friendship Group of the Kuwait National -2nd – 4th June, 2014. Visits of this nature will further enhance relations between the two countries.
• Visit of H.E. (Mrs.) Hind Subaih Barak Al Subaih, Minister of Social Affairs & Labour and State Minister for Economic Affairs, accompanied by 5 member delegation to participate at the 4th Abu Dhabi Dialogue Ministerial Consultations held in Sri Lanka from 23-24 January 2017.

 

Development Assistance

 

Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development (KFAED) has provided loans for development projects in Sri Lanka from 1975. By the end of 2016 fourteen (14) projects were assisted by KFAED and total value of assistance is with the worth of 72,656 Kuwait Dinars. Following are the details of projects;

Project Name Amount (KD)

(1KD=US$3.4)

Date of Signature Status
Urea Fertilizer 7,132,809.798 22-09-1975 Completed
Urea Fertilizer 937,190.202 21-01-1980 Completed
Mahaweli Ganga Development Stage (c) 12,860,000.000 12-07-1982 Completed
Mahaweli Ganga Development Project System 1,305,139.469 04-04-1994 Completed
Bridges Reconstruction And Rehabilitation 3,300,000.000 27-03-1995 Completed
Hambantota Irrigation Rehabilitation Project 2,021,862.313 04-05-1999 Completed
Rural Electrification Project-v 2,299,253.064 14-06-2000 Completed
Bridges Reconstruction And Rehabilitation 1,800,000.000 03-09-2001 Active
Rehabilitation Of Tsunami- Damaged Education 6,000,000.000 11-11-2005 Active
South Eastern University 2,000,000.000 17-07-2007 Completed
Kalu Ganga Development Project 10,000,000.000 09-03-2009 Active
South Eastern University(phase 1-b) 3,000,000.000 20-12-2011 Active
Reconstruction Of 25 Bridges 10,000,000.000 30-01-2014 Active
Building Complex For The Faculty Of Health-care Sciences 10,000,000.000 24-03-2016 Active

Note: All Amounts are in Kuwaiti Dinar (1 KD = US$ 3.4)

 

Cultural Cooperation

 

The State of Kuwait has awarded several scholarships to Sri Lankan students to study at the Islamic High School in Kuwait.

A Sri Lankan cultural troupe invited by National Council for Culture, Arts, and Letters of Kuwait performed in Kuwait in 2012 and 2017.

Sri Lanka participated at the ABC 17th Basketball Championship for Junior Men in Kuwait from 16th-26th December 2002 and at the 13th Asian Shooting Championships held in Kuwait from 1st to 12th November 2015.

 

Sri Lankan Community

 

Kuwait has emerged as a major destination for Sri Lankan expatriates and at present the number of Sri Lankan expatriated in Kuwait is approximately 100,000, about 80, 000 of them are domestic workers. The numbers continue to increase securing more and more skilled and professional employment in range of disciplines that fetches millions of remittances to Sri Lankan economy. The Kuwaiti Government has extended its cooperation in looking after the welfare of the stranded housemaids through establishing the Dasma Police and some Detention Camps, etc. particularly in assisting the process of expeditious repatriation of housemaids to Sri Lanka. The Government of State of Kuwait has declared General Amnesty period of six (06) weeks from 1st September to 15th October 2008 to repatriate who have been staying in Kuwait illegally. More than 1400 Sri Lankans have reportedly returned to Sri Lanka during the Amnesty period. The Department of Labour, Kuwait, International Organization of Migration and Red Crescent of Kuwait have provided 1200 free Air tickets to these Sri Lankans.